IAPRI Infographics

(Note: Most documents are in PDF format, which requires Adobe Reader .)


PDF Document  The Case for Reducing the Food Reserve Agency Strategic Grain Reserve

Released: 19th February, 2019.

The primary objective of the Strategic Grain Reserve is to ensure food security. It is also a market intervention tool to reduce farmers' price risk and stabilize consumer prices. However, the SGR has problems such as high levels of grain wastage, failure to stabilize prices, crowds-out private sector investment, and strains the public purse. This infographic recommends minimizing intervention in the maize sector, revise the size of SGR and conduct periodic reviews, reduce the role of FRA in private sector investment and promote growth, and reduce direct government involvement in grain storage, among oters.


PDF Document  Enhancing the Participation of Smallholder Farmers in Aquaculture Value Chain

Released: 23rd August, 2018.

During the last five years, aquaculture has taken center stage in the country's development agenda and is recognized as a means to promote youth employment, improve rural smallholder household income and food security and reduce the high levels of malnutrition. This infographic highlights: the current status of the sector, annual fish production from capture and aquaculture, gross margins, challenges, and recommendations to enhance participation of smallholder farmers in aquaculture value chain.


PDF Document  What are the Secrets of Successful Agribusiness Entrepreneurs in Zambia?

Released: 21st June, 2018.

Youth unemployment remains a critical challenge in Zambia and if the status quo is not dealt with, the country may in the near future, experience political challenges. As at 2017, Zambia’s youth unemployment rate ranged from 45.5% to 51.1%. To address the pressing need for youth employment, agriculture remains the key driver. However, it has been unclear what youth employment opportunities exist within the agriculture sector. This infographic highlights the secrets of successful agribusiness entrepreneurs in Zambia.


PDF Document  The Global Hunger Index: What Does it mean for Zambia?

Released: 24th April, 2018.

Zambia's ranking on the Global Hunger Index (GHI) has been a source of great concern among stakeholders. This infographic is an effort to explain the meaning of the GHI and Zambia's position on the index. It also shows how it is computed and highlights the factors or variables used in its computation. Further, it delves into Zambia's 2017 GHI performance and measurement issues using dimensions such as inadequate food supply, child malnutrition, and child mortality. It proceeds to suggest measures to improve Zambia's performance on the GHI.


PDF Document  Diverse Programme Responses for Diverse Rural Households

Released: 29th November, 2017.

This infographic is a collaborative effort between Zambia's Indaba Agricultural Policy Research Institute (IAPRI) and the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (UN-FAO) Zimbabwe-based office. It provides a synthesis of the diverse programme responses for diverse rural households. It sheds light on programme participation. In its recommendation, it strongly discourages the use of one-size fits all.


PDF Document  Zambia's 2018 Agricultural Budget Analysis

Released: 09th October, 2017.

This infographic dissects the 2018 Agricultural Budget Analysis by highlighting the budgetary allocations in the Ministry of Agriculture and Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock. It advocates for government to reduce its involvement in maize procurement, target subsidies to land constrained farmers, and consider a reduction of strategic grain reserves, among others. It also shows that the allocation for 2018 is a marginal drop from the 2017 budgetary allocation.


PDF Document  Grain Marketing Innovations and Investments in Zambia: Creating Marketing Opportunities for Smallholder Farmers

Released: 28th September, 2017.

In the past decade, Zambia has been experiencing massive grain marketing innovations. These innovations have opened up lucrative alternative marketing channels to farmers, especially those producing surpluses for sale. Private sector investments in the sector have endured trade policy changes which have to some extent hindered their growth. Investments in grain storage and marketing infrastructure requires a stable marketing environment. This infographic highlights the marketing opportunities for smallholder farmers owing to the grain marketing innovations and investments in Zambia by the private sector.


PDF Document  Fall Armyworm Outbreak in Zambia: Lessons Learnt to Avert Future Outbreak

Released: 29th April, 2017.

In November and early December 2016, Zambia experienced an outbreak of the fall armyworms which affected fields in over 100 districts in almost all the provinces of Zambia. Although maize fields were mostly affected, the fall armyworm can affect other crops such as sorghum, millet, cotton and, soybeans. This infographic describes the fall armyworm and highlights its salient features. It also differentiates the fall armyworm from the Stalk Borer. It proceeds to comment on the 2016 Outbreak and make notable mention of some of the pertinent issues that arose from the 2016 outbreak. The infographic then provides recommendations for the government and smallholder farmers to avert future outbreaks. 


PDF Document  Livestock Production: Opportunities and Challenges

Released:13th April, 2017.

The livestock sector in Zambia has great potential to contribute to rural poverty reduction. It contributes about 3.2% to the overall GDP and 42% to the agricultural GDP. It is dominated by smallholder farmers who consider livestock as a valuable asset due to the ease of converting it into cash. It is also an important source of protein, and features prominently in cultural transactions such as dowry payment and settlement of disputes. Overall, the livestock population has been increasing with a noticeable decline between 2008 and 2012. The Livestock infographics provides a brief of the challenges affecting the sector and proceeds to show IAPRI's empirical findings. Challenges affecting marketing of livestock in Zambia are also mentioned. Specific roles to be played by the government, private sector and smallholder livestock farmers are also put forth.


PDF Document  Climate Change and Agriculture in Zambia

Released: 31st October, 2016.

The planet’s Climate is changing, this is irrefutable. Agriculture is greatly affected by these changes especially in Zambia where the majority of people depend on agriculture which is mostly rain fed and climate is what determines rain. Agriculture, if not performed sustainably can degrade the environment and further may increase the negative effects of climate change. In this infographic, we discuss how Zambia can sustainably exploit its natural resources, farmers' perceptions and its effects on Zambian agriculture. We also discuss how Zambia and Zambian agriculture can be part of the Climate Change Mitigation agenda.


PDF Document  The Fisheries Sector in Zambia: Status, Management, Challenges and Opportunities

Released: 30th June, 2016.

Population growth, urbanization and income growth are likely to further increase demand for animal and fish products. In particular, the local supply of fish will have to be augmented by aquaculture. IAPRI's infographic on fish attempts to highlight the status, management, challenges and opportunities of the fish sector in Zambia. It shows that aquaculture production is at about 20000 Mt, annual catches from capture fisheries is at about 75000 Mt, and total consumption is at 130000 Mt giving a deficit of 35000 Mt. The fish sector contributes about 0.3% to the Gross Domestic Product. So far, government: has established a fund for aquaculture and fisheries, provides extension delivery services, developed the fisheries management plan as well as the national aquaculture and strategy and national aquaculture development plan. Challenges in the sector include low production and productivity, unknown stock biomass in major fishery bodies, inadequate breeding centres for fingerlings, lack of quality fingerlings and feed, high financing and feed costs, limited access to credit and finance, lack of storage facilities, weak institutional arrangements and regulatory frameworks, limited public resources, and dwindling water resources due to climate change. Recommendations include: formulation of the fisheries sector policy, harmonization of conflicting legal frameworks, operationalisation of the fund, more research and policy analysis, effective regulation and monitoring of fish and imports, regular fish audits, vat zero-rating of fish feed, promotion of cage/pond aquaculture, and review fisheries management strategies.


PDF Document  Smallholder Horticulture: The Unfunded Rural Poverty Reduction Option in Zambia

Released: 10th November, 2015

In a bid to highlight the opportunities outside the maize sector, IAPRI embarks on a comparative assessment of the horticulture sector in income growth and rural poverty reduction in Zambia. The infographic notes that while Zambia has been experiencing 10% agricultural growth, there has not been a significant reduction in rural poverty. The reasons cited include: policy focus on maize; uneven fund allocation in the agriculture budget; smallholder land constraints; unwillingness to change status quo; and little attention given to sectors excluding maize. It proceeds to show bottlenecks in horticulture development which include limited income and assets of smallholders, limited cash inputs and knowledge, and concentration of production and marketing to areas with good roads. Empirical evidence shows that smallholder horticulture is much more profitable than maize, and smallholder horticultural production has a higher impact on household income than maize. Factors influencing smallholder participation in horticultural markets include: female-headed households, relatively young heads, proximity to good roads, price variability, Farmer Input Support Programme, and maize quantity purchase by the Food Reserve Agency. Recommendations have been made to government, smallholder farmers and the private sector.

Detailed Reading: Working Paper No. 96 I Policy Brief No. 72


PDF icon  2015 Zambia's Agricultural Budget Analysis

Released: 23rd December, 2014

In this infographic, IAPRI begins by highlighting the budget speech made by the Minister of Finance Hon Alexander Chikwanda and proceeds to show Zambia's agricultural budgetary allocation trend from 2012 to 2015. Using an illustration, the infographic shows the breakdown of the total allocation to the agricultural sector. It then draws the attention of the reader to the key drivers of agricultural growth and argues that government spending on subsidies has the lowest return on investment. It further postulates that delayed budget releases to the sector are worrying, and outlines the major areas of concern: policy concentration on FRA and FISP as well as inadequate funding to the key drivers of agricultural growth. In a more succinct manner, the infographic states categorically that FRA and FISP have limited impact on productivity and poverty reduction, and that maize centric policies will not move the rural majority out of poverty. In conclusion, the infographic prescribes the following: prioritize and direct more resources towards the key drivers of agricultural growth, implementation of FISP should be through a flexible e-voucher system, FRA role should be limited to strategic reserves, and there should be an improvement in the timing of budget releases.

Detailed Reading: 2015 - Zambia's Agricultural Budget Analysis


PDF Document  Will Zambia Run Out of Maize?

Released: 08th May, 2015

Premised on the growing concern that due to poor rains Zambia would go hungry in 2015, the infographic posits that Zambia is well suited to deal with a poor harvest in the 2015/2016 marketing season. Using scenarios and illustrations, the infographic concludes that it would take quite a catastrophic harvest for Zambia to face terrible shortages of maize. Furthermore, the infographic argues that maize stocks alone are not enough and proposes that government should avoid knee-jerk responses to panic over the harvest. As such, there is no need to close the borders. Instead, maize stocks need to distributed to areas that need it the most, and once the Crop Forecast Report is published, the government should set out its target for the Food Reserve Agency purchases and stick to it.

Detailed Reading: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


PDF Document  Is Zambia Really Land Abundant?

Released: 24th Feburary, 2015

Based on IAPRI’s extensive research on land related issues, the infographic sets out to show that smallholder farmers are land constrained in the midst of abundance. The infographic begins by providing background information on land availability, ownership and cultivation smallholder farmers. It proceeds to explain why smallholder access to land is important: high poverty rates are concentrated among smaller farms, more than ¾ of smallholder farmers with less than 2 hectares of land live on less than K8 [US$1] per day, addressing rural poverty requires putting in place strategies to improve income opportunities, and evidence showing that land access of 2 to 3 hectares among smallholder farmers can lead to decrease in poverty rates. The infographic then shows why land is becoming scarce. To sum it all, the infographic shows that the total land claims against the proportion of land available for agricultural production include urban areas, game management areas, national parks, wetlands, state lands and forest reserves. In dealing with scarcity of land, the infographic suggests the following: identification and opening up of new areas through infrastructural investments, revisiting the farm block concept, easing and opening up the system for titling of land, re-looking at the Land Act to ensure that those with less financial means and education would have land available to them, and development of appropriate strategies for improving income opportunities for smallholder farmers with less than 2 hectares of land.


PDF Document  Is the 2014 Bumper Maize Harvest Real?


This infographic sets out to show that 2013/14 Crop Forecast Survey that showed a 32% increase over the previous year’s production was correct. The infographic gives four reasons why the forecast was to be believed: maize production estimate was based on a survey of 13,600 small-scale farmers across the country; farmers received higher prices for their produce the previous year; higher prices and private investments enabled a massive increase in fertilizer use by small-scale farmers; and despite late rains the overall rainfall pattern was good. The infographic proceeds by suggesting that Zambia could build on the growth by increasing competition for smallholder maize, encourage favorably priced cash markets for Zambian farmers, and enable farmers to invest in farm production and increase yield. With the stamp of empirical evidence, IAPRI endorsed government’s announcement that FRA maize purchases would not exceed strategic reserve requirements and that government would not restrict regional maize trade. Building on this momentum, it was recommended that the Agricultural Marketing Bill be enacted, and a Warehousing Authority be designated as required by the Agricultural Credit Act.